AGV is the acronym of Automatic Guided Vehicle. AGV is a key equipment of automated logistics transportation system and flexible production system, playing an important role in the automated logistics warehouse. AGV is not only automation equipment, but also a mobile robot by accessing to AGV system. It is called Automatic Guided Vehicle because this name is more vivid.
An AGV system with complete function is usually composed of three parts: a walking mechanism, a sensing system and a control system. The walking mechanism is the basis for AGV to achieve the movement, determining the AGV's movement space and freedom. The sensor system determines its navigation mode, mainly the laser sensors, ultrasonic sensors, photoelectric sensors, magnetic sensors, CCD cameras, infrared sensors or GPS positioning are used. In recent years, with the rapid development of microcomputer technology, artificial intelligence and sensor measurement and control technology, AGV becomes more intelligent and humane, to enhance the AGV towards intelligent robots.
When implementing tasks autonomously in an environment that is partially known or unknown, AGV must be adequately safe. The external environment is perceived and analyzed by sensors and then the environment is understood by appropriate way, which is of great significance to the AGV intelligence. In recent years, studies on AGV showed that, for autonomous AGV working in a complex or unconventional environment, it is necessary to further enhance its autonomous judgment ability and achieve the normal working relying on their own pattern recognition and obstacle identification. In this aspect, non-reflector laser navigation technology is very successful, and the autonomy and learning ability of AGV is enhanced by intelligent algorithms. The introduction of artificial intelligence methods has a positive effect on the further development of the global AGV model and acquisition of global control information. At present, the key technologies that affect AGV development include navigation technology, AGV system control technology, power technology and so on.